The Magnetic Balance test is conducted on Transformers to identify inter turn faults and magnetic imbalance. The magnetic balance test is usually done on the star side of a transformer. A two phase supply 440V is applied across two phases, say, 1U and 1V. The phase W is kept open. The voltage is then measured
between U-V and U-W. The sum of these two voltages should give the applied voltage. That is, 1U1W + 1V1W will be equal to 1U1V.
For instance, if the voltage applied is 440V between 1U1V, then the voltages obtained can be
1U1V = 1U1W + 1V1W
440V = 260V + 180V
The voltages obtained in the secondary will also be proportional to the voltages above.
This indicates that the transformer is magnetically balanced. If there is any inter-turn short circuit that may result in the sum of the two voltages not being equal to the applied voltage.
The Magnetic balance test is only an indicative test for the transformer. Its results are not absolute. It needs to be used in conjunction with other tests.