A Chopper is an electronic circuit which controls or reduces a dc supply. Their function can be compared to an ac transformer. In an AC transformer, voltage is controlled by changing the turns ratio of the transformer. In a chopper, voltage is varied by connecting and disconnecting the load from the source many times in a second.
The chopper is essentially a switching circuit which switches off and on many times. The output of a chopper is a square wave form while the input is a unidirectional dc waveform.
Choppers can be used in motor speed controls. They are increasingly being used in electric automobile technology.
Choppers are used widely in Electronics in circuits in solar power conversion, speed control of motors in the industry. They are used to reduce DC voltage to different levels in machines and other electronic equipments
Choppers have high efficiency and can be designed to have very fine control.