Protection Relays - Opto-coupler Relays, Difference between AC and DC relays, Reverse Power Relay,

Opto-coupler Relays

Optocoupler relays are relays in which the changeover of contacts is effected by the switching on or off of a light source which is linked to a SCR or a TRIAC. The SCR or the TRIAC is switched on or off when the LED is switched unlike conventional relays, where it is done electromagnetically.

These relays are faster than electromagnetic relays. More importantly, the provide isolation between the control and the power circuits.

These relays do not have any moving parts which can deteriorate due to arcing or operational wear. However, they are expensive over conventional relays and hence still find limited application.

Another advantage of the Solid state relay is that it can open an AC circuit when the sinewave crosses zero. This ensures that the back-emf is minimum and this ensures that there are no voltage kicks in the opposite direction when the circuit is open due to inductance. This is because the Triac or the SCR used in the solid state relays conduct current till the waveform reaches the zero point even after the optocoupler LED has been switched off. This prevents premature failure of the contacts.

The Advantages of Optocoupler relays include

Smaller Size

Faster Response time
Noiseless operations as there is no mechanical movement of the contacts.
Optocoupler relays can withstand high vibration compared to conventional relays
They do not generate Electromagnetic radiation as there is no coils to be energized.

However, they also have some disadvantages.

They are more expensive
They generate heat and require special heat-sinking fixtures.
They cannot switch on very low currents
When Solid state relays fail, they fail in the "closed position". In this situation, the machine which is connected will continue to be in the operating condition and there will be difficulty in isolating it. Electromagnetic relays usually fail in the "open" position.

Difference between AC and DC relays

AC and DC relays work on the same principle, that of, electromagnetic induction. However, there are some differences in construction. DC relays have something known as the freewheel diode which acts to discharge the emf built in the inductance when the coil is de-energized. (Click here to read about the phenomenon of freewheeling.) AC relays have cores which are laminated to prevent losses due to eddy current heating.

Another more conspicuous difference between a DC relay and an AC relay is presence of the Shading Coil. In AC relays, the alternating current supply changes direction about 100 times a second. At each instance, when the sine wave passes through zero, the current flowing through the coil becomes zero. This results in a loss of magnetism for a few milliseconds. When this happens about 100 times a second, the repeated drop and pickup of the coil produces a noise known as chattering. This also leads to the making and breaking of the relay contacts leading to disturbances in the connected electric circuits.

A shading coil is a coil with high remanence. thus when the magnetism of the coil collapses when the current becomes zero. The shading coil still retains the magnetism. Thus, ensuring that the contacts do not drop off.

Reverse Power Relay - Function and Operation

A reverse power relay is a directional power relay that is used to monitor the power from a generator running in parallel with another generator or the utility. The function of the reverse power relay is to prevent a reverse power condition in which power flows from the bus bar into the generator. This condition can occur when there is a failure in the prime mover such as an engine or a turbine which drives the generator.

Causes of Reverse Power

The failure can be caused to a starvation of fuel in the prime mover, a problem with the speed controller or an other breakdown. When the prime mover of a generator running in a synchronized condition fails. There is a condition known as motoring, where the generator draws power from the bus bar, runs as a motor and drives the prime mover. This happens as in a synchronized condition all the generators will have the same frequency. Any drop in frequency in one generator will cause the other power sources to pump power into the generator. The flow of power in the reverse direction is known as the reverse power relay.

Another cause of reverse power can occur during synchronization. If the frequency of the machine to be synchronized is slightly lesser than the bus bar frequency and the breaker is closed, power will flow from the bus bar to the machine. Hence, during synchronization(forward), frequency of the incoming machine is kept slight higher than that of the bus bar i.e. the synchroscope is made to rotate in the "Too fast" direction. This ensures that the machine takes on load as soon as the breaker is closed.

Setting the Reverse Power Relay

The reverse power relay is usually set to 20% to 50% of the motoring power required by prime mover. By motoring power we mean the power required by the generator to drive the prime mover at the rated rpm. This is usually obtained from the manufacturer of the prime mover (turbine or engine).