Components and Structure of a Power System

A Power system has three main components
They are

  • The Generating System
  • The Transmission System 
  • The Distribution System

Generating System
The Generating System is the source of the power.   The generation can be from generators, solar panels, etc.  Power can be generated from different sources such as hydropower, wind turbines, nuclear plants,etc.

Components: Synchronous Generators, induction generators, solar panels,

Transmission System
The transmission system transmits the generated power over large distances to the distribution centres such as industries and cities.  The distribution areas can be thousands of kilometres away from the generating stations.  The voltage is stepped up to high values to minimize the losses using transformers.  The power is then transmitted through the power lines to the distribution areas.

Transmission systems can be categorized into

Primary Transmission Systems, which transfer power at voltage of 110 kV and above.  These lines are hundreds of miles long.  They are connected to secondary receiving substations

Secondary Tranmission Systems, which receive the power from the primary transmission system send it to the distribution systems.  The voltage levels in the secondary transmission systems are about 33kv to 66kV

Components: Transformers, Circuit Breakers, Overhead Transmission Lines, Underground Cables.

Distribution Systems
The distribution system receives power from the transmission system and distributes the power to the individual customers at the required voltage.  The industrial supply voltage can be 33kV or 11kV.  The domestic supply voltage is 440 or 220V

Components: Transformers, underground and overhead transmission lines.