Losses in a Transformer

The Efficiency of the transformer is the given by

(Power output/Power Input)*100

The Efficiency of the transformer is affected by the losses inside the transformer.

These losses can be categorized into three types
  1. Copper losses,
  2. Core Losses and
  3. Stray losses

Copper Losses
These are losses caused by the heating of the conductor when current is passes through it. They are also known as I2R losses as the heat generated is proportional to the formula


Core Losses
Core losses are the losses which occur in the core of the transformer. There are two kinds of core losses, They are Hysteresis Loss and Eddy Current Losses

Hysteresis losses occur when the magnetic orientation of the molecules inside the core are reversed when the magnetic field changes. This reversal of orientation of the molecules results in the generation of heat.

Eddy current losses occur due to circulating currents in the form of eddies which are generated in the core. These eddy currents generate heat.

Stray losses
These are losses which occur due to the leakage of the magnetic flux of the transformer. This leakage can cause eddy currents in the fitments of the transformer such as the tank, channels, bolts, etc.