Types of Single phase motors.

Resistance Split Phase motors
It has Low Starting current.  The starting torque is moderate.  Applications include Fans, grinders, centrifugal pumps, washing machines

Capacitor Start Motors
The starting torque is high.  Hence, it is used for applications with heavy connected loads such as pumps, conveyors, compressors, etc.  It is the most widely used of all single phase motors.  It is used for motor sizes up to 6 kW.  The capacitor is in line during starting  The capacitor is disconnected by a centrifugal switch as the motor approaches the rated speed.

Permanent Capacitor Motor
The starting torque is high.  The power factor is good due to the presence of the capacitor at all times.  The efficiency is high and the torque produced is smoother.  Ceiling Fans use this type of motor

Two Value Capacitor Motors
This motor is also a capacitor based motor.  However, here there are two capacitors instead of one.  One capacitor is in line during start of the motor while the other capacitor comes in line when the motor is running.

Shaded pole motor
The Shaded pole motor works on the principle of a shading ring which is fitted to the stator poles. This ring varies the reactance and creates two fields.  This motor is simple in construction.  It is used for fractional kW applications such as in hair dryers, table fans, etc.  It has low starting torque and lower power factor.