Bumper in Automobiles

A bumper is a component attached in the front and rear of an automobile to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Bumpers are standard components that are commonly used in all vehicles nowadays.

Bumpers have two major safety functions.  They diminish height mismatches between vehicles.  They also protect pedestrians in the event of a collision.

The bumper structure on modern automobiles usually have a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made up of steel, aluminum, fiberglass composite, or plastic.

Bumpers save other vehicle components by dissipating the impact of kinetic energy generated in a collision. This energy is a function of vehicle mass and velocity squared. In formula form, it is given by  which suggests that a vehicle protecting the components at 5 km/ hr must be four times stronger than the bumper that protects at a 2.5 km/hr.